All One People and Under One King

Maeve Kane, University at Albany SUNY | @MaeveKane

Presented for the William and Mary Quarterly Digital Research in Early America Forum at University of California Irvine, October 11-12 2018. Special thanks to Nick Schiraldi of UAlbany’s Academic and Research Computing Center.

  1. Daniel K Richter, “Cultural Brokers and Intercultural Politics: New York-Iroquois Relations, 1664-1701,” The Journal of American History 75, no. 1 (1988): 40–67; Daniel K. Richter, “Some of Them . . . Would Always Have a Minister with Them: Mohawk Protestantism 1683-1791,” American Indian Quarterly 16, no. 4 (Autumn 1992): 471–84. Daniel K. Richter, The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization (Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1992); David Preston, The Texture of Contact : European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2009); Gail D MacLeitch, Imperial Entanglements: Iroquois Change and Persistence on the Frontiers of Empire (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011); Edward Countryman, “Toward a Different Iroquois History,” ed. Jon Parmenter et al., The William and Mary Quarterly 69, no. 2 (2012): 347–60,; Daniel R. Mandell, “‘Turned Their Minds to Religion’: Oquaga and the First Iroquois Church, 1748-1776,” Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 11, no. 2 (2013): 211–42,
  2. See for example Daniel Richter, “Cultural Brokers and Intercultural Politics: New York-Iroquois Relations.” The Journal of American History. June 1988, Vol 75: 41; James Hart Merrell, Into the American Woods : Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier. New York: Norton, 1999; Richard White, The Middle Ground : Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991; Margaret Szasz, editor. Between Indian and White Worlds: The Cultural Broker. Norman OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 1994; Robert Grumet, editor. Northeastern Indian Lives, 1632-1816. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. 1996; Nancy Hagedorn, “Brokers of Understanding: Interpreters as Agents of Cultural Exchange in Colonial New York.” New York History. Fall 1995, Vol 76: 379-408; Laura Johnson, “Goods to Clothe Themselves.” Winterthur Portfolio 43, no. 1 (2009); Timothy J Shannon, Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire : The Albany Congress of 1754. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press ; New York State Historical Association, 2000; Peter C. Mancall, and James Hart Merrell. American Encounters : Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1850. New York: Routledge, 2000; Jane T. Merritt, At the Crossroads : Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763. Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003; Timothy J. Shannon, “Dressing for Success on the Mohawk Frontier: Hendrick, William Johnson, and the Indian Fashion.” The William and Mary Quarterly 53, no. 1 (1996): 13–42; Nancy Hagedorn, “Brokers of Understanding: Interpreters as Agents of Cultural Exchange in Colonial New York,” New York History 76, no. 4 (1995): 379–408. For a critique of this focus on the male diplomatic encounter, see Ann M. Little, "Gender and Sexuality in the North American Borderlands, 1492–1848." History Compass 7, no. 6 (2009): 1606-1615.
  3. Susan Sleeper-Smith,  Indian women and French men: rethinking cultural encounter in the Western Great Lakes. University of Massachusetts Press, 2001; Michele Mitchell, "Turns of the Kaleidoscope: Race, Ethnicity, and Analytical Patterns in American Women's and Gender History." Journal of Women's History  25:4 (2013): 46-73; Morrissey, "Kaskaskia Social Network.” For an examination of the importance of nation, ethnicity, and indigenous political power to Native women's intermarriage, see Kathleen DuVal, “Indian Intermarriage and Métissage in Colonial Louisiana”. The William and Mary Quarterly 65:2, 2008: 267–304. For one case of a female diplomatic broker in eighteenth century Iroquoia, see Jon Parmenter, "Isabel Montour: Cultural Broker on the Eighteenth-Century Frontiers of New York and Pennsylvania." In Ian K. Steele and Nancy Rhoden, eds.,The Human Tradition in Colonial America, Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Press, 1999. 141–59; and Alison Duncan Hirsch, "'The Celebrated Madame Montour': Interpretess across Early American Frontiers", Explorations in Early American Culture 4 (2000): 81–112.
  4. Erik R. Seeman, "Uncovering Hudson Valley Indian History." Reviews in American History 41:2 (2013): 191-196; Brenda Macdougall. “Speaking of Metis: Reading Family Life into Colonial Records.” Ethnohistory 61:1 (Winter 2014), 31-32; Gunlog Fur, A Nation Of Women: Gender And Colonial Encounters Among The Delaware Indians. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012; Merritt, 51-59 passim.
  5. Sir William Johnson to the Earl of Loudon, “Information of an Onondaga Indian Called by the English Corn-Milk,” Fort Johnson, March 4, 1757, Huntington Library. LO 2971
  6. On Indian conversion in North America, see Jean Fittz Hankins, "Bringing the Good News: Protestant Missionaries to the Indians of New England and New York" (Ph.D. diss., University of Connecticut, 1993); John Frederick Woolverton, Colonial Anglicanism in North America (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984) 103; Allan Greer, "Conversion and Identity," in Conversion: Old Worlds and New Kenneth Mills and Anthony Grafton, eds., (Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 2003); William S. Simmons, "Conversion from Indian to Puritan," New England Quarterly 52 (1979) 197-218. James Axtell, "Were Indian Conversions Bona Fidel" in After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); Charles L. Cohen, "Conversion among Puritans and Amerindians: A Theological and Cultural Perspective," in Puritanism: Transatlantic Perspectives on a Seventeenth-Century Anglo-American Faith (ed. Francis Bremer; Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1993); Kenneth M. Morrison, The Solidarity of Kin: Ethnohistory, Religious Studies, and the Algonkian-French Religious Encounter (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002); Linford D. Fisher, “Native Americans, Conversion, and Christian Practice in Colonial New England, 1640—1730,” Harvard Theological Review 102, no. 1 (January 2009): 101–24,; Neal Salisbury, "Embracing Ambiguity: Native Peoples and Christianity in Seventeenth-Century North America," Ethnohistory 50 (2003) 247-59; Edward E. Andrews, Native Apostles (Harvard University Press, 2013); Linford D. Fisher, The Indian Great Awakening: Religion and the Shaping of Native Cultures in Early America, (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014).
  7. Henry Barclay, Register of Baptisms, Marriages, Communicants and Funerals at Fort Hunter, 1734. New-York Historical Society, BV Barclay,; Siversten, 125; Samuel Hopkins, Historical Memoirs Relating to the Housitanic Indians (1911), 27; J. Lydekker, Faithful Mohawks, 53-54. On early Anglican practices of register keeping, see Shirley Spragge, “‘One Parchment Book at the Charge of the Parish . . . ’: A Sample of Anglican Record Keeping,” Archivaria 30 (Summer 1990): 55–63.
  8. On the practice of godparentage and baptismal sponsorship broadly in the early modern period, see Holifield, Theology in America, 53–55; Sidney Mintz and Eric R. Wolf, "An Analysis of Ritual Co-Parenthood (Compadrazgo)," Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 6 (1950): 341-365; Michael Bennett, "Spiritual Kinship and the Baptismal Name in Traditional European Society," L.O. Frappell, ed., Principalities, Powers and Estates: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Government and Society (Adelaide, 1979): 1-13; and Smith, "Child-Naming Practices as Cultural and Familial Indicators," 13; Stephanie Grauman Wolf, Urban Village: Population, Community and Family Structure in Germantown, Pennsylvania, 1683-1800 (Princeton, 1977): 293-294; Daniel Scott Smith, "Child-Naming Patterns and Family Structure Change: Hingham, Massachusetts 1640-1880," The Newberry Papers in Family and Community History, Paper 76-5; Emily Clark and Virginia Meacham Gould, “The Feminine Face of Afro-Catholicism in New Orleans, 1727-1852,” The William and Mary Quarterly 59, no. 2 (2002): 409–48,; Rebecca Anne Goetz, The Baptism of Early Virginia: How Christianity Created Race (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012); Edward H. Tebbenhoff, “Tacit Rules and Hidden Family Structures: Naming Practices and Godparentage in Schenectady, New York 1680-1800,” Journal of Social History 18, no. 4 (1985): 567–85; Jewel L. Spangler, Virginians Reborn: Anglican Monopoly, Evangelical Dissent, and the Rise of the Baptists in the Late Eighteenth Century (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2008); Will Coster, Baptism and Spiritual Kinship in Early Modern England, St. Andrews Studies in Reformation History (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002); Daniel Lindmark, “Baptism and Swedishness in Colonial America: Ethnic and Religious Membership in the Swedish Lutheran Congregations, 1713-1786,” Scriptum 50 (2002): 7–31.