Colonial America

French North America

Dr. Kane Social Science 116 | MWF 12:35-1:30 PM

Office Hrs: M 10:20 - 11:20 & F 1:30 - 3:30 Social Science 60S

Wednesday, November 1

coming up

  • Final proposals - Friday Nov 3
  • Locations paper - Nov 17
  • check the Blackboard syllabus

today's class

  • British vs. French colonization
  • Pierre Radisson - Canada
  • Eunice Williams - Canada
  • Esther Wheelwright - Canada
  • Louis Congo - Louisiana
  • Marie Rouensa - Illinois

Taylor, French America

  • why did so few French choose to emigrate?
  • why did present giving in Native diplomacy become a problem for the French?

British vs. French colonization

  • French royal colonies from 1650
  • greater French women's property rights
  • less unfree labor (except Louisiana)
  • focus on expansion rather than density
  • professional, trained legal profession

habitants, marchands & seignerus

  • seignerial grants: land owning low nobility
  • habitants: low rent, but no land ownership
  • very high rate of return to France
  • why no Bacon's Rebellion?

economic power

  • Canadian fisheries & Illinois farms feeding Caribbean plantations
  • Caribbean plantations subsidizing North America
  • fur trade and intermarriage as diplomacy
  • reliance on Native allies in interior and for protection

British claims


French claims


Pierre Radisson

  • Montreal nearly burned to the ground, 1699
  • torture and adoption of male captives
  • role of Native women in adopting captives
  • importance of language in later life

Eunice Williams

  • 1704 Deerfield MA raid, Queen Anne's War
  • women and children not tortured before adoption
  • Kahnawake Mohawk - French Catholic
  • New England horror of Catholicism
  • why would she stay?

Esther Wheelwright

  • 1703 Wells Maine raid, Queen Anne's War
  • education of daughters of important Native leaders at Quebec convent
  • Gov. Vaudreuil's need to show progress
  • Catholic superiority over Protestantism

Louis Congo

  • Catholic morality & Code Noir - slaves must be baptized
  • enslaved women must be freed if made pregnant by a white man
  • enslaved people must be clothed and fed to certain standards, maintained in old age
  • fear of Native uprising & poor whites

Marie Rouensa

  • daughter of chief of Kaskaskia (Illinois)
  • French & Illinois patriarchal marriage
  • French Catholic worship of Virgin Mary & networks of women
  • godparentage as alliance & frenchification